Democracy has been defined as the experienced practice by all adult men and women in the affairs of the state to determine and decide all questions by their vote and thus realize Abraham Lincoln's ideal of 'government of the people, by the people, for the people'.
Democracy takes many things for granted. Democracy assumes that all adult men and women are intelligently interested in the affairs of the state. We, who live in India, know it by experience.
Another ridiculous assumption of democracy is that the majority is always right. If 51 members out of 100 vote for a proposal, it is "carried" and the rest must obey. How can we be certain that the 51 % are wiser than 49%. How can bare majority claim a superior wisdom?. Democracy as seen so far is run by the parliament. How far can the party system represent the spirit of democracy is anybody's guess.
Political parties are elected not on the basis of principles, but on group interests. Ministers, in power serve their own economic interests but claim to serve the state. Policies and programs are more that of the party than that of the nation. Ministers chosen for the cabinet of ministers are not for their ability or talent but by their money power. This results in a government of amateurs. An efficient government can be formed by energetic men with lot of initiative and drive. People With common sense, political knowledge and experience can run the government efficiently or they run the risk of removal.
Voters in India are not educated and enlightened, thus resulting in the dis functioning of the system. Voters do not exercise their vote whole heartedly. Voting is the paramount right of the citizens in a democracy. But the voters do not fully and wholly discharge their obligations to vote. Voting is now based on caste and extraneous considerations. This has made voting qualitatively and quantitatively poor that the whole process of democratic system becomes jeopardized.
Another defect is in the leadership. Leaders or ministers are politicians and don’t possess necessary technical and administrative knowledge and experience. Leaders themselves indulge in so many unscrupulous activities to gain power and to remain in power once they have got it. As a consequence, democracy attracts only those who are unscrupulous and have little knowledge about government careers. An efficient government can onh be run by able leaders who are neither class conscious nor interest controlled. Another defect is that so much of the democracy is in the hands of poorly qualified persons in the art of government. Educated leaders do not exercise power for their own betterment but use power for the upliftment of the state. Leaders with Money power is elected nowadays but they would not have the expertise to run the ministries they are entrusted with. Moreover, they will have to face parliamentary debates, which again would keep them in high tension. Therefore, a minimum educational qualification for the candidates electing should be made compulsory so that no voters are trapped by money power.
There has been a controversy in the nation to change the present parliamentary form of government to presidential form of government. But this would surely lead to dictatorship. Instead of changing the form of government, changes should be made in the present type of government itself. If all the voters cannot be politically educated, the candidates representing the political parties should be at least educated. Voters in India seldom vote for objective assessment of the comparative merits of various candidates. They are taken away by unrational factors like caste, religion and class. Thus a strong plead to the government is to make minimum educational qualification necessary for the candidates representing the parties for elections so that no voters experience repentance.